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The utility lsof is a very useful utility, and can be used to list the shared libraries being used by a running process. It can be important to know if a running process is using a particular library, perhaps for forensics reasons or for library upgrades.

To list all the libraries in a particular process, try this command:

lsof -a -c name +D /usr/lib

This will list all files used by name in /usr/lib. To list all files used by name, just use:

lsof -c name

Alternately, to find all processes using a file (library) in /usr/lib, use this command:

lsof /usr/lib/libname

The -c option specifies the beginning of a name of a process to list. The -a option is used to create a boolean AND set; otherwise, lsof assumes a boolean OR set of options. With the +D option (which scans for files recursively down the directory tree), the first example looks for the process name that also has open files from the /usr/lib directory tree.

Another good use of lsof has to do with finding files that are open but deleted. Such a situation could potentially happen with a shared library if the library was deleted while a file was using it. This could perhaps happen during a library upgrade. Use this command to do this:

lsof +L1

The +L option specifies files with a specific number of links; here, any file with less than one link (that is, zero links) will be listed. Files with zero links are not listed in the filesystem but are open and in use by a file. The blocks from such files remain marked as in use by the filesystem, but the file cannot be found by name anywhere and has no inode.

There is a nice concise article by Joe Barr at Linux.com about what you can do with lsof. Lsof is available for download.

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